First Phase
LPG

Quantity: 149 Ton/day

Specifications:

The specifications of the produced LPG are presented in the following table: 

Characteristic

Unit

Requirements

Vapor Pressure @ 37.5°C, max

Bara

9.9

Water Content

%wt.

0.00

Hydrogen Sulfide

%wt.

0.002

Sulfur, max

%wt.

0.01

Mercaptans, max

%wt.

0.008

Propane, max

%wt.

30

Butane, max

%wt.

70

C2 content, max

%mol.

3

C5+ content, max

%mol.

2

Olefins content, max

%mol.

30

Volatile Residue @ 95% evaporation, max

°C

2.2

 Market:

There are two scenarios regarding the LPG as follows:

Scenario I: There is a lasting deficit for LPG in Syria which implementing of Alfruqlus refinery will compensate most of it. However, with the increasing consumption of LPG, the surplus will switch to deficit by 2030 even after the operation of Alfruqlus refinery. In this regard Syrian Government is studying the possibility of supplying houses with natural gas to abate importing of LPG.

Scenario II: Although Alfruqlus refinery reduced the deficit of LPG, the demand for LPG will increase. Therefore, the import of LPG shall be continued again to meet domestic demand.

 

Gasoline

Quantity: 1,833 Ton/day

Specification:

The Alfruqlus Refinery design considered products quality according to Euro V specification.

 The Gasoline pool (57 percent Reformate, 34 Light Naphtha from NHT unit, 8 percent MTBE and 1 percent C4 from LRU unit) complies with all the specifications for Euro V U95 gasoline, as presented in the following table: 

Characteristic

Unit

Requirements

RON, min

--

92

Sulfur, max

ppm

10

Benzene, max

%vol.

1

Aromatics, max

%vol.

35

Vapor Pressure

kPa

60-70

Olefins, max

%vol.

18

Oxygen, max

%wt.

2.7

Market:

There are two scenarios regarding the Premium gasoline as follows:

 

Scenario I: The surplus of premium gasoline will begin after the implementation of the first phase of Alfruqlus refinery and during the second phase the surplus will increase up to 1 mm3/year by 2030. Domestic produced gasoline will be exported via Banias refinery which is located at the coastal area and whole Alfruqlus refinery products will be distributed through the country by Syrian government as the total off-taker.

Scenario II: Based on this scenario there is lower surplus after the implementation of both phases of Alfruqlus refinery (with respect to scenario I). The amount of the surplus after the implementation of both phases of Alfruqlus refinery is 748 m3/year. Increasing the country consumption will result to the deficit of 68 m3/year by 2030.

Diesel

Quality: 2,740 Ton/day

Specifications:

In the Alfruqlus refinery, the production of diesel is maximized as a result of some consideration  in the refinery units. As a consequence, there is no Jet Fuel production. The Diesel pool (DHT and Kerosene) complies with the specifications for Euro V Diesel, as presented in the following table:

Characteristic

Unit

Requirements

Density @ 15°C

kg/m3

820-845

Sulfur, max

ppm wt.

10

Cetane number, min

-

52

Poly Aromatics, max

%wt.

11

Distillation (95% point), max

°C

360

Flash Point, min

°C

65

Market:

There are two scenarios regarding gasoil as follows:

Scenario I: after the implementation of the first phase of Alfruqlus refinery, the surplus of gas oil will begin. Gasoil surplus will increase even more after the implementation of second phase to reach 3734 Km3/year in 2023. It can be seen from Table 22 and Figure 28 that gasoil surplus decreases to reach 933 Km3/year in 2030. According to this scenario, the matter of export-market as mentioned in chapter 2 seems to be important.

Scenario II: In spite of revamping current refineries and implementation of both phases of ARC refinery there exist lasting deficit of Gasoil up to 3270 km3/year in 2030.

Fuel Oil

Quantity: 3,708 Ton/ Day

Specification:

The specifications of the produced Fuel Oil are presented in the following table: 

Characteristic

Unit

Requirements

Flash Point

°C

65-100

Sulfur, max

%wt.

3.5

Pour Point, max

°C

30

Density @ 15°C

kg/m3

950-1,050

Viscosity @ 50°C, max

cSt

230

Market:

Fuel oil is out of the ordinary case, that revamping and upgrading of current refineries reduce the amount of fuel oil and enlarge the gap between production and consumption. In spite of establishing new refinery, production of fuel oil is not planned. In general, the current approach for existing refineries and new Alfruqlus project is to maximize the production of fuel oil and to produce diesel as much as possible instead on, as well as the production of pet coke by ARC. 

Fuel oil is the key product for industries and electricity sectors. Industry sector consumes about 17% of domestic sales of fuel oil in Syria and electricity sector consumes about 83% of domestic sales of fuel oil. 

There are two scenarios regarding fuel oil as follows: 

Scenario I: Considering the increasing consumption of fuel oil by power stations, deficit will rise annually up to 6000 k ton in 2030. In spite of the global reduction of fuel oil, it can be seen that the consumption of fuel oil is increasing which is due to the lack of natural gas in Syria.  The supply of fuel oil cannot stop importing the fuel oil to the country. 

It is necessary to be noted that the production of fuel oil by Alfruqlus refinery is highly required in Syria; especially, in power stations and the Syrian government has guaranteed the purchasing of the fuel oil produced in Alfruqlus refinery based on product off take agreement between ARC and Syrian petroleum ministry. However, based on the Alfruqlus refinery approach, fuel oil is going to be produced during the first three years of Alfruqlus refinery (1st phase) and after the implementation of the 2nd phase of Alfruqlus refinery, diesel will be produced.

Scenario II: There will be a lasting deficit up to 8020 kton in 2030, considering the assumptions regarding growth rate of both electricity and industry sectors . As well as the decreasing production of fuel oil throughout revamping of BRC and implementation of the 2nd Phase of ARC.

Bitumen

Quantity:  1,200 Ton/Day

Specification:  

Produced Bitumen is in accordance to Syrian requirements for Bitumen. The main characteristics are presented in the following table: 

Characteristic

Test Method

Grad 50/70

Grad 80/100

Penetration at 25 °C (0.1 mm)

ASTM D5

(50-70)

(80-100)

Melting point, °C

ASTM D36

(46-54)

(43-51)

Ductility at 25 °C, cm

ASTM D113

100

100

Flash point(open) Minimum, °C

ASTM D92

230

230

Rate of solution in trichloroethylene, wt.%

ASTM D2042

99.0 min

99.0 min

Loss by heating at (163 °C) for 5 hours, wt.%

ASTM D6

1.0 max

1.0 max

Percentage penetration change

ASTM D1754

53 max

48 max

Market:

There are two scenarios regarding bitumen as follows: 

Scenario I: as clarified in figure 33, surplus of Bitumen is reducing annually in parallel with increasing demand. 

Scenario II: According to this scenario, there is slight deficit till the implementation of 1st phase of Alfruqlus refinery. At this time, surplus of bitumen begins to rise to reach about 400 Kton/year and deficit returns to rise after 2nd phase of Alfruqlus refinery

Sulfur

Quantity: 113 Ton/Day

Specification:

Produced Sulfur is in accordance to typical commercial Sulfur requirements, presented in the following table: 

Characteristic

Unit

Requirements

Purity, min

%wt.

99.9 (dry basis)

H2S Content, max

ppm wt.

10

Carbon, max

%wt.

0.04

Ash, max

%wt.

0.01

Moisture, max

%wt.

0.5

Color

-

Bright yellow (in solid state)

 

 

Market:

According to the Figure , a growing deficit will appear until 2020. Implementation of 1st phase of ARC, revamping of BRC in 2021, and implementation of 2nd phase of ARC will cause surplus to rise to 133 kton/year by 2023. 

It should be considered that, SQHC (Syrian Qatari Holding Company), an expected new strategic project of fertilization, will be established in Syria consuming sulfur about 220kton/year after the establishment of the new fertilization plant by SQHC in 2025, all surplus of sulfur will be consumed domestically. Consequently, importing Sulfur is necessity to substitute deficit’s sulfur of domestic demand.